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Mattia Scardamaglia: Highlighting the dynamics of 2D materials protection to oxidation of copper under operando condition

posted 8 Aug 2019, 03:02 by info admin
Mattia Scardamaglia1, Claudia Struzzi1, Virginia Boix1, Giulio D’Acunto1, Alexey Zakharov1,
Jan Knudsen1, Nicolas Reckinger2, Xin Chen3, Abhay Shivayogimath3, Tim Booth3, Patrick Zeller4,
Matteo Amati4, Luca Gregoratti4
1 MAX IV Laboratory - Lund University, Sweden
2 University of Namur, Belgium
3 DTU Physics, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark
4 Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Italy

The recent development of ambient pressure XPS makes accessible operando investigation of many phenomena otherwise impossible [1]. The prevention of metal corrosion is of extreme technological importance; therefore, the investigation of the protective action of 2D materials must be carefully assessed [2]. 
We performed ambient pressure XPS in situ experiments on copper coated by graphene and hexagonal boron nitride, in oxidation conditions (O2 atmosphere). To understand the evolution of copper oxidation and the role of graphene, we investigated regions with bare copper, mono- and multi-layers graphene flakes, by using the near ambient pressure scanning photoemission microscope available at ESCAMICROSCOPY beamline (ELETTRA) [3]. Three temperature regimes were identified: (i) up to 300 °C, the amorphous carbon desorbs and the Cu under graphene remains metallic, while the bare Cu regions readily oxidized; (ii) in a short temperature range up to 360 °C, the oxygen starts to intercalate from graphene edges or defects and slightly oxidized the Cu underneath (Figure 1); (iii) at T higher than 360 °C the carbon is etched away.
At HIPPIE beamline (MAX IV), we compared Cu, graphene and hBN through AP-XPS up to 5 mbar in O2 atmosphere. We identified different protection thresholds, with graphene being able to protect the copper up to higher temperature with respect to hBN.  
These in situ experiments clearly highlight the role of 2D materials as protecting layers of copper from oxidation.  

[1] M. Salmeron and R. Schlögl, Surf. Sci. Rep., 63 (2008) 169-199
[2] L. Camilli, F. Yu, A. Cassidy, I. Hornekaer, P. Boggild, 2D Materials, 6 (2019) 022002
[3] M. Scardamaglia, C. Struzzi, A. Zakharov, N. Reckinger, P. Zeller, M. Amati, L. Gregoratti submitted (2019)

Born in Rome (Italy), Mattia Scardamaglia received his Ph.D. in Materials Science from Sapienza University in 2012. After moving to Belgium for a postdoc at the University of Mons, he received funding for an individual three-years project from the Fund for Scientific Research FRS-FNRS (2015) to study heteroatom doping of carbon nanomaterials. Now, he is working at the MAX IV Synchrotron in Lund (Sweden) at the HIPPIE beamline for ambient pressure photoelectron spectroscopy. His main interests are mostly devoted to surface and interface science of 2D materials by means of synchrotron-based spectromicroscopy techniques.